Style Guide

All articles will be published electronically in Exchanges: the Warwick Research Journal and it is therefore vital that the format of the final submission conforms to the following guidelines.
Presentation of manuscripts
  • Manuscripts should be between 5000 and 6000 words in length, and written in English.
  • All the authors of an article should include their full names, affiliations, and email addresses on the cover page of manuscripts. Names or other identifying features should not appear on any other part of the manuscript.
  • An abstract of 100-200 words should be submitted with all articles.
  • Authors should supply around six keywords for indexing and abstracting purposes.
  • Manuscripts must contain the following information in the correct order: title page; abstract; keywords; main text; acknowledgements; lists of illustrations, figures and maps (as appropriate); list of tables (as appropriate); appendices (as appropriate); endnotes; references.
  • Articles should be submitted in MS Word. Final manuscripts should be 1.5 lines spaced, with page margins of at least 2.5cm all round, and should be written in Arial font, size 11 point.
  • Headings should appear on separate lines. Do not use numbering. Up to three levels of headings may be used in the text if necessary.
  • All headings should be left aligned. First-level headings: 11 pt Arial, roman, bold. Second-level headings: 11 pt Arial, italic, sentence case. Third-level headings should be avoided where possible, but if they are absolutely necessary: 11 pt Arial, roman, underlined, sentence case.
  • All text should be left aligned. Please refrain from excessive formatting or use of alternative software design/layout features. This will be done in the Layout stage. You may add notes if you have a preference for appearance.
  • Endnotes (if needed) should be used in preference to footnotes.
  • The Harvard style of referencing should be used: please see further details below.
 Content: Text
  • A single space (not a double) should be used after a full stop, comma, colon or semi-colon.
  • Spelling should conform to the new edition of the Concise Oxford English Dictionary.
  • Use -ise, in preference to -ize as a verbal ending (e.g. realise, specialise, recognise, etc).
  • Use full stops after abbreviations (p.m., e.g., i.e., etc.) and after contractions where the end of the word is cut (p., ed., ch.); full stops are not required where the contraction ends in the same letter as the original word (Dr, vols).
  • Use single quotation marks for quoted material within the text; double quotation marks should only be used for quotes within quotes. Quotations of over forty words (or more than two lines of verse) should be extracted and indented and no quotation marks used.
  • In general, numbers up to ten should be spelled out, but use numerals for measurements (e.g. 6 km) and ages (e.g. 9 years old). Insert a comma for tens of thousands (e.g. 20,000), but not for numbers up to 9999.
  • Set out dates as follows: 9 July 1990 (no comma), on 8 July, or on the 8th; 1990s (not spelt out, no apostrophe); nineteenth century (not 19 century) and insert hyphen when used adjectivally (e.g. nineteenth-century art).
  • Refer to your work as an 'article' (i.e. do not call it a paper, an essay, a dissertation, etc.).
Content: Non-textual material
Where possible, tables, graphs, maps, urls and any other additions to the text should be formatted and contained in the correct place in the text. Any additions to the text that cannot be contained within it, such as video clips, should be supplied separately with a note in the text to indicate where the resource should be located.Insert your material in as format-free a way as possible. For example: end a line of text, insert a line-space, insert your picture, type a caption underneath it (in 11pt Arial as with the rest of the text), insert a line space and carry on with your text. Do not anchor anything to a fixed point on a page, do not use a different font for captions and do not use text boxes. Do not wrap any text around images.We are aware of the fact that you will want to make your article look as nice as possible on the page. However, please remember that when your article is published, it will appear online, as well as in pdf format. In order to upload it we have to convert it to HTML, so the less formatting there is in your work, the better. Do not worry if this means that you have gaps on pages in Word where an image has had to be carried over to the next page because it is too big. It will appear correctly on the published webpage.
For photos JPEG is generally the best format. Photos should be resized to a size suitable for displaying on a web page.You should ensure that you have the necessary permissions for reproducing photographs, maps, tables etc BEFORE you submit them as part of your article. A caption should be placed under each illustration saying what it depicts, followed by details of the source (e.g. 'Source: Alan Walker's collection of photographs'). At the end of your article you should include a list of illustrations together with source information, e.g. 'Photo reproduced by kind permission of Alan Walker'. Some copyright-holding institutions have a particular form of wording which you must use as part of the permission deal, in which case you must abide by this.If a photograph is your own, you may of course publish it as you see fit, but you should include information which says 'from the author's own collection' or similar.
For audio we recommend .mp3 format.
Video and audio recordings are also subject to copyright restrictions: permission for use should be sought, and sources acknowledged, as noted above for photographs.
Discipline-specific information
Note: This information does not seek to cover every aspect of every discipline; it will be updated as we receive submissions from different subject areas. Please contact us if you need specific advice on anything not contained here.
  • Latin legal terms should be written in italic: de jure, ex parte, habeas corpus etc. For names of parties in cases, also use italics, with 'v' having no full stop after it: Ford v Wainwright, Smith v Washington.
  • Where a term is repeated frequently, and/or is unwieldy when spelled out, type it in full the first time with an accepted abbreviation afterwards in parentheses: 'International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)' and use the abbreviation on its own in subsequent references.
  • In other abbreviations, use a full stop after abbreviations which consist of a mixture of upper- and lower-case letters but not between or after capitals: 'Ont. LJ', 'Ch. D', but 'QBD', 'AC'.
Foreign languages
  • Quotations from works in foreign languages should abide by the general rules for quotations, listed above. In addition to this, a translation into English in the same format (i.e. indented or not indented), enclosed in square brackets, should follow. An indication should also be given as to whether the translation is taken from a published translation of the work (in which case the reference must be given) or whether it is the author's own.
  • French: include all relevant accents on lower-case letters; use them on upper-case letters only where they are needed to avoid confusion. Use single quotation marks in preference to guillemets, except where the guillemets themselves form part of the quotation.
  • German: Use letters with umlauts for both upper- and lower-case letters in preference to the addition of an 'e'. For modern works follow the new orthography established in 1998; quotations from works published in old spelling should follow the old style. Note particularly the rules surrounding the use of 'ss' in preference to the Eszett (ß).
  • Greek: Individual words or short phrases in Greek should be transliterated; longer quotations should remain in Greek script but should be followed by a translation.
  • Use BC and AD in preference to CE and BCE; use small capitals and insert a space after the number, thus: 64 BC.
  • Some authors prefer to use the present tense when referrring to ancient individuals: 'Cicero wants' rather than 'Cicero wanted'. This is acceptable but needs to be used consistently - do not vary your tenses as you go along.
  • If you anglicise Roman names, use the full Latin name at the first mention and then note that you will anglicise thereafter. 'Lucius Segius Catalina (hereinafter Catiline)'.
  • Give full names rather than abbreviations: 'Publius Sulla', not 'P. Sulla'
  • Continue to follow the Harvard system of referencing (i.e. name and page number) for your in-text citations of original works, even where different conventions exist elsewhere: '(Cicero, 1982: 26)' rather than '(Cic. Pro Sul. 81)'.
  • Provide English translations for any quotations in Latin. These should be in the same format (i.e. indented or not indented), and enclosed in square brackets. An indication should also be given as to whether the translation is taken from a published translation of the work (in which case the reference must be given) or whether it is the author's own.
  • Any Greek terms should be in italics. At the first mention of a term it should be followed by a short explanatory note in parentheses, e.g. 'a black-figure dinos (mixing bowl), painted by [...]'; the Greek term (still in italics) can be used on its own thereafter.
Science and Mathematics
  • Authors should follow the standards common in their discipline, and should avoid introducing non-standard symbols.
  • Use the internationally agreed abbreviations for all SI units.
  • Clarity in presentation is essential: for example, authors should differentiate clearly between the numbers 0 and 1, and the letters O and I; also where appropriate between the letter x and the multiplication sign ×
The Harvard Referencing system should be used in all papers. Examples of such referencing can be found below.
Text citations
  • References in the text should include surname and date (Marsh, 1997). Et al. (in italics) should be used where there are more than two authors (Marsh et al., 1997). Direct quotes or ideas that relate to a certain range of pages in a publication should also be referenced by page numbers after the date (Marsh, 1997: 34) or (Marsh, 1997: 34-36). [Note that there is a space after the colon, but not between the numbers and hyphen.]
  • If the same author has two or more references dating from the same year, they can be differentiated by letters (Marsh, 1997a) or (Marsh, 1997b).
  • If the work you are citing has more than one volume, you need to give the volume number as well as the page number: (Marsh, 1997, vol. 2: 34).
  • Full references should be listed alphabetically by author surname at the end of the paper.
  • All authors should be identified by surname and then initial(s) or first name (choose to use either first names or just initials, and be consistent in this throughout the bibliography).
  • Et al. should not be used in full references.
  • When listing a range of page numbers, give the last two digits unless you have to change the last three: 32-39 [not 32-9]; 112-19 [not 112-9 or 112-119]; 123-45 [not 123-145]; 1297-302 [not 1297-02 or 1297-1302].
Referencing different types of publication:
Single-author book
Manunta, G. (1998b), Security: An Introduction, Cranfield: Cranfield University Press
[The full information includes the title, place of publication and name of the publisher. Note the position of the full stops, commas and colons, and follow this pattern. Note that the book title, but not the surrounding punctuation, is in italics.]
Multi-author book
Grace, B., F. Bloggs and J. Smith (1988), A History of the World, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
[Note that only the name of the first author is reversed: subsequent authors have their initials or first name followed by surname.]
Multi-volume work
Grace, B., F. Bloggs and J. Smith (1988), A History of the World, 17 vols, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
[Put the total number of volumes after the title, even if you have only used one volume for reference. As noted above, your in-text citation should specify volume as well as page number.]
Article in journal
Somekh, B. and R. Davies (1991), 'Towards a pedagogy for information technology', The Curriculum Journal, 18 (2), 153-70
[Note that the title of the article is in normal font but enclosed in quotation marks; the title of the journal is in italics. The full citation gives the volume and issue number of the journal (some journals do not have issue numbers, in which case this may be omitted), and the page reference for the article. Note that the page reference is not preceded by 'pp.'.]
Edited Book
Keene, E. (ed.) (1988), Natural language, Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press
[This format is the same as for an authored book, but the editor's name must be followed by '(ed.)' to show that s/he did not author the work. Note that if there is more than one editor, only the first name should be inverted, and that the list of names should be followed by '(eds)' with no full stop.]
Chapter in Edited Book
Coffin, J. M. (1999), 'Molecular Biology of HIV', in Crandell, K. A. (ed.), The Evolution of HIV, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, pp. 2-10
[This reference contains details both of the chapter and its author, and of the book and its editor. The title of the chapter is in quotation marks, followed by the word 'in' and the details of the book, which should be formatted in the same way as the 'edited book' example above. Note particularly that the page reference should be preceded by 'pp.'.]
Second or subsequent edition of a book
Newman, J. H. (1974), An Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine, London: Penguin (originally published by Longman in 1897)
[Reference the edition which you are actually using, as page numbers may vary between editions. After the publication details, put in brackets the original publisher and year. If the title was slightly different in the original edition, this information should read 'originally published as title by Longman in 1897']
Slapper, Gary (2006), 'Corporate manslaughter, new issues for lawyers', The Times, 3 September 2006, pp. 4-5
[The title of the article is in quotation marks, with the name of the newspaper in italics. Note that the exact date including day and month should be given.]
Reference from the Internet
Pearson, M. (1999), Online study skills guide,, accessed 16 September 2007
[Note that the full url must be given, as well as the exact date that the page was accessed. The url should be underlined.]
Article in an online journal
WASS Collective (2007) 'Gender Transformations in Higher Education', Sociological Research Online, 12 (1),, accessed 3 October 2007
[Note that the journal article is formatted in the same way as an article in a printed journal, but that the additional details of the url and date must be given.]
Unpublished thesis
Neary, M. (1994), 'Youth, training and the training state: the real history of youth training in the twentieth century', unpublished PhD thesis, University of Warwick
[The title of the thesis is in normal font, in quotation marks. The citation must state 'unpublished PhD thesis', and must give the name of the awarding institution. Also note that extensive quotation from an unpublished thesis normally requires permission from the awarding institution.]
Conference proceedings
Simbuerger, E. and C. Lambert (2006), 'Reinventing Academic Practice', in New Educational Practice, Proceedings of the Society for Research into Higher Education (SRHE) conference, 2006, Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp. 20-34
[The title of the article is in quotation marks; the title of the work in italics. Note that the details of the conference are given in addition to the title and the publisher's details.]
Conference paper (unpublished)
Simbuerger, E. and C. Lambert (2006) 'Reinventing Academic Practice', Society for Research into Higher Education (SRHE) conference, Brighton, 12-14 December, 2006
[Note that if the paper has not been published, the details of where and when the conference was held must be given.]
Book Reviews
Book reviews should be written in 11pt Arial, double-spaced. Start with the citation details, in the format:
Author’s name (year of publication), Title in italics, place of publication, publisher
Any series to which the book belongs, number of pages
ISBN for hardback and paperback editions (if applicable)
James G. McGann with Richard Sabatini (2011), Global Think Tanks: Policy Networks and Governance, Abingdon: Routledge
Global Institutions Series, 170pp.
ISBN: 978-0-415-77978-4 (hardback), 978-0-415-77979-1 (paperback)
Then write the text of your review in 600-800 words
End with your name and affiliation.
For advice on anything not included in this style guide, please feel free to contact us at