Harvard Referencing Guide

Single-author book

Manunta, G. (1998b), Security: An Introduction, Cranfield: Cranfield University Press

[The name of the author is reversed such that the family name comes first. The first and middle names of the author should be abbreviated with initials, and the date of publication should appear in parentheses immediately after the author’s name. The full information includes the title, place of publication and name of the publisher. Note the position of the full stops, commas and colons, and follow this pattern. Note that the book title, but not the surrounding punctuation, is in italics.]

Multi-author book

Grace, B., Bloggs, F. and Smith, J. (1988), A History of the World, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press

[As above, but authors’ names are separated by a comma; ‘and’ is used before the final author’s name.]

Edited Book

Keene, E. (ed.) (1988), Natural language, Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press

[This format is the same as for an authored book, but the editor's name must be followed by '(ed.)' to show that s/he did not author the work. Note that if there is more than one editor then they should all be listed, followed by '(eds)' with no full stop.]

Chapter in Edited Book

Coffin, J.M. (1999), Molecular Biology of HIV, in Crandell, K.A. (ed.), The Evolution of HIV, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, pp. 2-10

[This reference contains details both of the chapter and its author, and of the book and its editor. The title of the chapter is followed by the word 'in' and the details of the book, which should be formatted in the same way as the 'edited book' example above. Note particularly that the page reference should be preceded by 'pp.'.]

Corporate author

National Urban League (1951). 40th Anniversary Yearbook, 1950. New York, NY: Author

[When a book is authored by an organisation or a corporation rather than an individual, put the organisation’s name where you would otherwise put the author’s name. If the author and publisher are the same corporation/institution, list the publisher as ‘Author’.]

Anonymous author

Anonymous (1996). Primary Colors: A Novel of Politics. New York, NY: Random House

[List the author as ‘anonymous’.]

Compilation / anthology

Landsman, J., and Lewis, C. (Eds.). (2006). White teachers, diverse classrooms: A guide to building inclusive schools, promoting high expectations, and eliminating racism. Sterling, VA: Stylus.

[Compilations, anthologies and other books that consist of chapters by many different authors do not have a single author. For that reason, when you cite such books in their entirety, credit the editor(s) or compiler(s) listed on the cover instead of the author of a particular chapter. (If you only need to cite one chapter from a compiled book or anthology, see the format for a book chapter.)]

Second or subsequent edition of a book

Zinn, H. (2003). A People’s History of the United States (2003 ed.). New York, NY: Perennial.

[When citing an edition of a book other than the first edition, you should indicate the edition which you are actually using, as page numbers may vary between editions. You should identify the edition you are citing by year or number (if either is available), or by name (if the edition is listed as “revised” or “abridged”). After the publication details, put in brackets the original publisher and year if different. If the title was slightly different in the original edition, this information should read 'originally published as title by Publisher in Year']

Multi-volume work

Carruthers, P., Laurence, S., and Stich, S. (Eds.). (2005-2008). The Innate Mind (Vols. 1-3). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

[To cite multiple volumes from the same series, include the total number of volumes in the work (regardless of how many you cite) after the title of the work. If the volumes were not published in the same year, cite the range of publication dates for the series.]

Article in journal

Somekh, B. and Davies, R. (1991), Towards a pedagogy for information technology, The Curriculum Journal, 18 (2), 153-70

[Note that the title of the article is in normal font; the title of the journal is in italics. The full citation gives the volume and issue number of the journal (some journals do not have issue numbers, in which case this may be omitted), and the page reference for the article. Note that the page reference is not preceded by 'pp.'.]


Slapper, G. (2006), Corporate manslaughter, new issues for lawyers, The Times, 3 September 2006, pp. 4-5

[The name of the newspaper in italics. Note that the exact date including day and month should be given.]

Reference from the Internet

Pearson, M. (1999), Online study skills guide,

 http://www.hud.ac.uk/schools/skills/referen.htm, accessed 16 September 2007

[Note that the full url must be given, as well as the exact date that the page was accessed. The url should be underlined.]

Article in an online journal

WASS Collective (2007) Gender Transformations in Higher Education, Sociological Research Online, 12 (1), 

http://www.socresonline.org.uk/12/1/lambert.html, accessed 3 October 2007

[Note that the journal article is formatted in the same way as an article in a printed journal, but that the additional details of the url and date must be given.]

Unpublished thesis

Neary, M. (1994), Youth, training and the training state: the real history of youth training in the twentieth century, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Warwick

[The title of the thesis is in normal font. The citation must state 'unpublished PhD thesis', and must give the name of the awarding institution. Also note that extensive quotation from an unpublished thesis normally requires permission from the awarding institution.]

Conference proceedings

Simbuerger, E. and Lambert, C. (2006), Reinventing Academic Practice, in New Educational Practice, Proceedings of the Society for Research into Higher Education (SRHE) conference, 2006, Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp. 20-34

[The title of the work in italics. Note that the details of the conference are given in addition to the title and the publisher's details.]

Conference paper (unpublished)

Simbuerger, E. and Lambert, C. (2006) Reinventing Academic Practice, Society for Research into Higher Education (SRHE) conference, Brighton, 12-14 December, 2006

[Note that if the paper has not been published, the details of where and when the conference was held must be given.]